More than 2300 years ago,shang Yang's standard gauge was promoted to unify the weights and measures of the Qin State,which laid the foundation for the eventual unification of the six states.Since then,the significance of measuring the accuracy of all things,the balance of the universe has continued to this day.
"To develop science and technology,measurement must come first".In fact,as early as the 1950s,China has developed meteorological instrument measurement work.Since the establishment of the Instrument and Technology Section of the Central Meteorological Bureau in 1954,meteorological measurement has gone through 64 years.China's meteorological metrology industry has gone through a process from scratch,from weak to strong,from simple calibration to scientific and technological innovation,from domestic to participate in international metrology cooperation and make a certain impact in the field of international meteorological metrology.Generation after generation of meteorologists have devoted their efforts and painstaking efforts to ensure unified and accurate detection data.
Forge ahead to the forefront of the international community
In 1954,the Instrument and Technology Section of the Central Meteorological Bureau was established.In 1978,the Institute for Metrology and Determination of Meteorological Instruments,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,was established.On May 5,1995,the China Meteorological Administration to carry out national measurement,strengthen supervision and management of meteorological measurement,approved by the state bureau of technical supervision inspection and,at the Chinese academy of meteorological sciences on the basis of the meteorological instrument measuring offices shall set up the national meteorological metrology station,shall be borne by the national meteorological industry and dissemination of meteorological instrument calibration work,and on the 31 provincial meteorological measurement technology agency business guidance.
In 1997,the world meteorological organization(WMO)to determine the China national meteorological metrology stationⅡarea of Asia instrument center(RIC)-Beijing,facing regional members provide the calibration services.In 1998,the former Institute of Metrology of Meteorological Instruments was abolished and merged with the Institute of Atmospheric Sounding to become the Center of Atmospheric Sounding Technology,which was still known as the National Meteorological and Measuring Station.In 2002,the National Meteorological and Measuring Station was assigned to the Atmospheric Sounding Technology Center of the China Meteorological Administration(now the Meteorological Sounding Center of the China Meteorological Administration).
Over the past 64 years,China's meteorological measurement career from scratch,from weak to strong,challenge all the way forward,especially since the reform and opening up,China's meteorological measurement business is booming,from equipment maintenance to independent technology innovation,from the meteorological department in domestic service to provide international measurement services to other members of the WMO,the national meteorological metrology station reached the international leading step by step.
Belonging to the China Meteorological Administration center of national meteorological metrology station meteorological observation,in the country now has grown into five provinces(municipalities directly under the central government)has 19 laboratories,air pressure,air temperature,air humidity,air velocity,the sun and the earth radiation,precipitation,atmospheric electricity,atmospheric chemistry,visibility and other meteorological elements,fixed assets over one hundred million yuan of state authorized legal metrological verification institutions,bear the meteorological department in China metrological verification,calibration and dissemination task,guarantee the weather and climate related business of our country and research value in the field of precise and unified.
The National Meteorological and Measurement Station has a professional,young and high-level talent team,with 17 technical and managerial personnel,including 3 doctors,8 masters and 6 undergraduates.3 senior engineers,9 senior engineers,3 engineers;There are 7 level-I certified metrologists,6 level-II certified metrologists and 4 level-I certified metrologists.
In a sense,the National Meteorological Station is more like a young man on the run.Young,not only because the average age of the station staff is only 37 years old,but more importantly,the station is full of vitality and hope,and there are new changes every day.
In 2018,the National Meteorological And Measurement Station passed the Laboratory accreditation of The China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment(CNAS)and the Qualification Certification of inspection and Testing Institutions(CMA)of the Certification and Accreditation Administration.In the same year,large-scale metrology and civil-military integration strategy were launched,bringing new vitality to the measuring station.(Zhang Weiou in South Hejun Snow Scene)
Be penny-pinching and make a sharp knife to mark a ruler
"No rules,no radius".And meteorological measurement is to mark in the rules,is the"rules of the game",to ensure that the national and global meteorological data are measured with the same ruler.
In order to mark this scale well,the National Meteorological and Meteorological Measuring Station has established measurement standards for air pressure,temperature,humidity,wind speed,radiation,precipitation,atmospheric electricity,atmospheric chemistry and visibility,and formulated a whole set of management systems,which are in effective operation.This is equivalent to having a sharp knife to mark scales on a ruler.
Therefore,the national meteorological instruments should be traceable to the corresponding standards of the National Meteorological and metrological Station.The accuracy and reliability of national meteorological measurement standards are the premise and foundation to ensure the accuracy and reliability of meteorological observation data.If there is a deviation of"sesame"size,then,after several levels of value transfer,the terminal measurement data deviation may have become"watermelon".As the saying goes,"a miss is as good as a mile",and meteorological measurement is"penny-pinching"between such a miss.
For many years,the National Meteorological and measurement Station has been providing stable and reliable measurement technical support for China's meteorological forecast,climate prediction and disaster prevention and reduction.At present,our country all the national basic meteorological elements of automatic meteorological station under the effective guarantee of meteorological measurement,from the mountains,to the sea,from the forest into the desert,every beat of observational data from the national meteorological metrology station to come back,every the uncertainty of measurement result is in the control of meteorological measurement business.At the same time,meteorological measurement also provides reliable and effective technical support for China's economic development,scientific research,national defense construction and people's livelihood.
With the global climate change and energy crisis,it is more and more urgent for China to study and use new energy.The investigation,evaluation and planning of wind and solar energy resources nationwide are carried out under the strong guarantee of meteorological measurement.National meteorological metrology station construction in our country to the top ranks of the air flow velocity and the sun and the earth radiation standard,the country for investigation,assessment and planning of wind power and solar energy all measurement data must be traced back to the national meteorological metrology station air flow velocity and the sun and the earth radiation standard,measurement standard of accurate and reliable and effective operation of the dissemination system,guarantee the accuracy of the evaluation of national energy are unified,layout of the energy industry and energy strategy implementation provides important technical support.Who is to say that the blades turning in the anemometer station's anemometer have nothing to do with the oil tankers in the Strait of Malacca?
The study of global climate change is also carried out under the guarantee of meteorological measurement.The National Meteorological and Measurement Station has built a temperature measuring bridge with an uncertainty of 0.02 PPM(0.02 parts per million),which provides a precise technical support for the study of global temperature change.According to the data,"the global temperature has risen by 0.2 to 0.3℃in the past 50 years".Such a slight temperature change must be observed by stable and unified meteorological measurement.
The judgment that"to develop science and technology,measurement must precede"has been fully reflected in the meteorological measurement business.(Jane Jufang,Kong Shiyuan,Ding Hongying)
Innovation and development,to become a meteorological measurement power
As legal metrological verification institutions,the national meteorological metrology station has not only the state administration of quality supervision,Inspection and quarantine(now state market supervision and management of administration)authorization,metrological verification and dissemination of work in accordance with law,at the same time,the national meteorological metrology station also has achieved national certification and accreditation supervision and administration commission of the examination institutions aptitude CMA(China Inspection Body and Laboratory Mandatory Approval)certification.
This shows that the National Meteorological and Measurement Station has the qualification and ability to issue certifying data and results to judicial,administrative,arbitration institutions and social,economic and public welfare activities,and its data and results will be recognized in accordance with the law.Obtaining metrological verification authorization and CMA certification is not only crucial to ensure the accuracy and unification of meteorological department's quantity value,but also a powerful means to safeguard the legitimate interests of meteorological department and the normal market order of meteorological industry.
Meteorological department every year,construction,maintenance and renovation of meteorological equipment,the concept of"One Belt And One Road"initiative and civil-military integration and further promotes the innovation and development of meteorological industry,market size for billions of dollars of meteorological industry,import and export trade and service trade are also increasing year by year,the national meteorological metrology station in a scientific,objective and impartial data,each business process and link for meteorological department provides the basis to ensure,to protect the interests of the government,enterprises and users.
As the WMOⅡarea of Asia instrument center,the national meteorological metrology station carries international calibration service for the members area.In recent years,China has repeatedly provided regular,high-quality calibration and training services for Vietnam,Mongolia,Indonesia,North Korea,Pakistan,Kazakhstan,Bangladesh,Myanmar,South Africa,Nepal,Sri Lanka,Thailand,Yemen and other countries.Experts from the National Meteorological and Measurement Station have carried out technical exchanges and cooperation with counterparts from Japan,Australia and other countries,further enhancing the international status of China's meteorological measurement.
In June 2018,the National Meteorological And Measurement Station was officially recognized by CNAS,which shows that the management system of national meteorological and Measurement Station conforms to the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and has the ability to issue effective data and results.This marks another solid step forward in the standardization,standardization and internationalization of national meteorological and measurement Station.
Nine calibration projects and eight tests were approved by THE CNAS,covering atmospheric pressure,air temperature and humidity,solar and earth radiation,air velocity and environmental tests.
CNAS is a member of the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation(ILAC)Multilateral Mutual Recognition Agreement(MRA).The purpose of ILAC-MRA is to reduce technical barriers,avoid repeated testing,and achieve the goal of"one test,global recognition".To be recognized by CNAS means that the data and results issued by the National Meteorological measurement Station will be recognized by more than 60 countries and regions in Europe,The United States and the Asia-pacific region.This is not only an affirmation of the calibration and detection capability of the measuring stations,but also opens up broad space for the national meteorological measuring stations to participate more and better in bilateral and multilateral international cooperation and exchanges.
The promotion of China's international influence on meteorological measurement has greatly enhanced the credibility of China's meteorological observation data and provided another strong guarantee for China's meteorological observation products to participate in global data exchange.The competitiveness of China's meteorological equipment manufacturers in the international market has also been strengthened.(Zhang Wilou ding Lei Liu Xin)
Depict the new"Fangyuan"with the strategy of large measurement
For many years,meteorological metrology business has been focusing on meteorological observation requirements,focusing on atmospheric pressure,temperature,humidity,wind speed,rainfall and radiation,etc.Nearly 300 metrology standards have been established nationwide,and more than 60,000 sensors have been calibrated annually,playing an important role in ensuring the accuracy,reliability and comparability of China's ground meteorological observation data.
In 2017,the meteorological measurement business"much starker choices-and graver consequences-in"the overall plan for the first time puts forward the concept of"big"measure,to realize the unified and accurate and reliable,the meteorological observation unit activities are all included in measuring business category,including the ground meteorological(including Marine meteorological and agrometeorological),high altitude meteorological and atmospheric composition,greenhouse gases,space weather and weather radar,meteorological satellite measurement instruments and equipment related to verification,calibration,testing,comparing and verification,calibration,calibration,and calibration and other business activities,as well as the meteorological measurement standards to establish and maintain,dissemination and traceability,meteorological measurement technology and method of research and development,the measurement supervision and so on.
To comprehensively expand the coverage of meteorological metrology work,improve the operational capacity of meteorological metrology institutions and fully guarantee the quality of meteorological metrology data are the inevitable requirements of national disaster prevention and mitigation,response to climate change and ecological civilization construction for meteorological metrology work.The concept of"large measurement"has greatly expanded the connotation and extension of meteorological measurement service.It can be said that the overall consideration of the overall planning of all activities to achieve accurate and reliable meteorological observation data is itself a"measurement"and"tracing to the source"of meteorological measurement work.
Through over ten years of effort and construction,and gradually formed a comprehensive coverage of existing meteorological observation instruments and equipment,complete technical regulation system,complete dissemination system,data quality is reliable,rational layout,adequate human resources meteorological measurement business,and realizes the meteorological measurement and meteorological observation instruments assess the integration of business,product quality is a new national meteorological metrology station describe the"square".
In the course of the comprehensive construction of meteorological modernization,meteorological measurement may not be in the vanguard,but meteorological measurement will always be in the vanguard of the"rules".(Chong Wei Jian Jufang)
This article is reproduced at the China Meteorological Administration